Monday, October 14, 2019

Ethological Principles In The Study Of Animal Behaviour

Ethological Principles In The Study Of Animal Behaviour Today, the study of animal behaviour is as far reaching as it was for our hominin ancestors who must have had some sense of understanding of animal behaviour while navigating through ancestral African environments. The effects of behavioural research on contemporary civilizations contributes to many aspects of human social and medical research, as well as impacts topics in conservation, habitat/resource sustainability, food production, and population dynamics. Over the last half century, animal behaviour has taken on several different forms. The aim of this of this essay is to explore the scientific study of modern animal behaviour known as ethology: Look at the historic approach to animal behaviour; review the central concepts of ethology, expanding upon Tinbergens (1963) four questions of causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution; illustrate the benefits of using ethological methodology in the study of behavioural phenomenon and discuss the potential impact of ethology on future behavioural research. I examine these questions in the light of comparative research on human and nonhuman primates. Animal Behaviour: A Brief Introduction The study of animal behaviour spans across many disciplines, each field asking specific questions and offering different levels of explanation. Behaviour can be described in terms of underlying hormonal/physiological mechanisms, developmental mechanisms, adaptive function, and in terms of evolutionary pathways of behaviour (McFarland, 1993). Before the advent of ethology, most behavioural disciplines attempted to answers only one or two of these questions at a time. For example, investigating how and when behaviours evolved confront behavioural scientists with a daunting task. Evolutionary biologists are equipped to answer these types of questions by using a phylogenetic approach. Phylogenetic trees allow scientist to investigate correlated evolutionary change and reconstruct ancestral states, making it possible to identify evolutionary relationships between homologous behaviours in closely related species (Nunn and Barton, 2001). This comparative method is useful if you are interested in understanding when a specific behaviour emerged in a species evolutionary history. Often, this line of inquiry leads researchers to generate addition questions: What environmental changes would have selected for this type of behaviour? Is this behaviour adaptive? How would this behaviour increase fitness and persists over time? Comparing similar behaviours between closely related species, occupying a similar niche, and evolutionary histories, provide a solid fr amework to begin generating testable hypotheses to these aforementioned questions. In the early 20th century, psychology comprised its own unique set of methods and experimental techniques that usually consisted of running controlled experiments in a laboratory setting while investigating behaviour (Bateson and Klopfer, 1989). Psychologists were concerned with designing experiments that tested proximate causations of behaviours. For example, a psychologist might investigate the developmental factors that affect the acquisition of learning and imprinting (Martin and Bateson, 2007). Investigating causal relationships to behaviour provide insight into whether behaviour is innate or if it is learned in the context of an individuals environment. On the other hand, behavioural neuroscience aimed to understand causal physiological mechanisms and corresponding neural controls that are modulated by environmental stimuli (Carlson, 2006). This field is concerned with identifying how an animals physiology interacts and is influenced by environment factors, and how this interaction elicits a behavioural response. In the mid 20th century, the behavioural sciences operated independently of one another, as if each disciplines research was a mutually exclusive approach. At that time the competing schools of thought failed to recognize the significant relationships between causation, development, function, evolution, or how each of the corresponding fields actually were complementary to each level of explanation. The scientific study of animal behaviour was in dire need of a complete synthesis that would incorporate proximate and ultimate classes of behaviour into a complementary, integrative framework. The Birth of Ethology The modern study of ethology filled this gap, and sought to piece together the fragmented behavioural scientific approaches. This new field aimed to explain all four classes of behavioural determinants, providing a full account of the phenomenon under study (Bateson and Klopfer, 1982). In the remaining section, I will define ethological principles, highlight the pitfalls of focusing on either proximate or ultimate levels of explanation, and present the case of modern ethology as the more systematic approach to the study of animal behaviour. Understanding the reason why a particular animal behaves in a certain way requires the right type of questions to be asked. In 1963, Niko Tinbergen, one of the founders of ethology, published the paper, On Aims and Methods of Ethology. In this paper he introduced four distinct and broad questions that he used in trying to answer the question, Why does an animal behave like that? (Shettleworth, 1998). In doing so, he laid the foundation for the study modern ethology. Ethology is the study of animal behaviour which attempts to answer four classes of questions: causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution. If a researcher wanted to know why baboons groom one another, it would be important to consider the immediate external stimuli which invoke a specific behaviour response in the animal, or otherwise stated you would want to look at proximate causations of behaviour. Researchers would want to develop questions that reveal causal answers: What external environmental stimuli and internal stimuli cause the animal to respond in a particular way? Answers to these questions often rely on the underlying psychological, physiological, and neurological mechanisms regulating an animals behaviour (Martin and Bateson, 2007). A possible causal explanation to why baboons groom would be that grooming functions as a as a mechanism to reduce stress (Crockford and et al., 2008). Moreover, Tinbergen (1963) was interested in investigating how changes in behaviour machinery are affected during development and coined the term ontology to describe this process. What was it about an individuals development that leads them to behave in a particular manor? Answers to these type of questions require scientists to look at whether a behaviour is learned or refined through development processes such as imprinting or possibly if it is generated by a genetic predisposition. In addition to the importance of providing proximate (causal and ontological) levels of explanation, two classes of questions investigate ultimate factors are equally important to investigate. Ultimate questions are interested in understanding how evolution has selected for and produced specific behavioural phenomena. One such questions looks at the adaptive/survival value a given behaviour would confer on an individual. For example, why do primates participate in intergroup aggression? These type of questions are considered functional investigations. As an example, evolutionary based cost-benefit theories would look at the functional/adaptive significance to intergroup aggression. One possible hypothesis to the question of why individuals exhibit intergroup aggression is that the more aggressive primate groups will achieve increased access to reproductive females and increased access to resources (Manson and Wrangham, 1991). Natural selection imposes differential reproductive succes ses, understanding these functional relationships provide answers to adaptive questions. The last behavioural problem Tinbergen identified was that of evolutionary history. He explains, The fact that behaviour is in many respects species-specific, and yet often similar in related species,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦[leads to] the natural conclusion, namely, that behaviour should be studied comparatively just as structures, with the ultimate aim of elucidating behaviour evolutionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦(Tinbergen, 1963: 427). Here Tinbergen advocates a phylogenetic approach to analyzing behaviour. Ethology aims to show how natural selection shaped the evolution of behaviour over time while uncovering possible evolutionary pathways (Tinbergen, 1963 and Barret, et al., 2002). For instance, if researchers were interested understanding why humans breathe the way they do, they would be interested in knowing how we evolved lungs? Farmer (1997) provides an evolutionary account to this question: Human lungs are believed to have evolved from ancestral fish gas bladders. This level of explanation provid es clues into when a behaviour may have first arisen and when it diverged between ancestral species. Ethology attempts to reconcile these four levels of explanation into a comprehensive framework for understanding. One such study illuminates the dangers researchers face when they incorporate only one level of explanation. Power (1975) conducted a study in which he tested whether mountain bluebirds lack altruistic behaviour. He attempted to show this by removing one mate of a pair caring for nestlings to test the claim; if altruism existed, a new mate would instinctually care for the nestlings. The study showed that new mates did not care for the nestlings, therefore the hypotheses, mountain bluebirds are altruistic, was rejected (Power, 1975). This study was criticized because it failed to account for the fact birds do not usually accept young unless hormonally prepared for them (Emlen, 1976). This process usually entails both mating partners being present during the events leading up to hatching and the presence of nestlings (Emlen, 1976). This physiological knowledge into hormonal cues in mountain bluebirds generated an alternative hypothesis; the new mate did not provide care to the nestlings because it lacked the proper hormonal activation. Therefore, it was concluded that the original hypotheses posed by Power was erroneous and failed to properly demonstrate if mountain bluebirds were altruistic. This example illustrates how tenuous behavioural studies can appear when they fail to incorporate ethological principles into their research design. Applied Ethological Principles Furthering Insight into Human Behaviour The more we learn from studying animal behaviour, the more we reveal about ourselves. Because humans are social primates, more ethological attention has focused on the study nonhuman primates as the best model to explain the social behaviour of humans. One such example into the potential benefits of ethological inquiry is articulated by the investigation into the effects of empathy, as one possible emotional mechanism that has evolved to help maintain and reinforce social bonds. Empathy is a complex emotion which has been proposed to exist in humans and nonhuman primates. Many ethologists have focused on chimpanzee and bonobo social systems, our closest extant ancestors, to better understand potential regulating factors involved in social bonding that could have helped promote and sustain the evolution of cooperation altruism. De Waal (2008) suggests humans as well as nonhuman primates both possess capacity to empathize with others, as a regulating mechanism of directed altruism. Directed altruism is defined as helping or comforting behaviour directed at an individual in need of pain, or distress (De Waal, 2008). Mounting evidence supports the view; similar cognitive capacities exist in human and nonhuman primates that could facilitate empathetic impulses and be linked to our similar evolutionary histories. Several studies have shown infants have an innate capacity to be influenced by the welfare of others. Infant nonhuman and human primates are known to respond to the distress of others with distress (Preston and de Waal, 2002). Furthermore, Preston and de Waal consider the hormonal release during suckling in maternal care as a positive promoter that rewards the giver with feel good hormones (ie. Oxtocin) to engage in directed altruism (Panksepp, 1998). This hormonal release could play a proximate role in promoting the perceiver to internalize the emotional state of another individual. Building on the neuroanatomy of empathy research, the central nervous system and the Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) have also been considered as a hard-wired link that controls emotional state matching and motor mimicry in humans and nonhuman primates (Preston and de Waal (2002). Chimpanzee studies reveal an increase in brain temperatures in the right hemisphere when chimpanzees are shown videos of severe aggression compared to neutral or positive videos (Parr and Hopkins, 2000). Negative videos directed a specific physiological reaction in the brain in response to the negative stimuli. These studies identify a potential link between the areas of the brain that are activated when individuals observe and witness emotional states of others (Preston and de Waal 2002). Meaning, the cognitive capacities for the emotional complex of empathy may not be strictly limited to humans, but may also function similarly with closely related nonhuman primates. The suggestion that nonhuman primate may also posses the capacity for empathy has not come without contention. Many scientists believe humans are the only species cognitively advanced enough to possess the innate capacity to internalize the emotions of others (eg., Schino, 2007). If Preston and de Waals claim is true, then empathetic hard-wiring has an ancient evolutionary lineage that evolved long before modern humans. Theoretically, innate empathetic capacities would help maintain and shape cooperation, reconciliation, and altruism between human and nonhuman primates. The origins of such a complex behaviour may have originated due to stronger selection on maintaining increased group size within ancestral primates. Therefore, it should be no surprises if we discover humans due in fact share the capacity to empathize with other social primates. This study promotes a possible link between the evolution of the complex sociality and empathetic emotional capacities in primates. Investigations like this exemplify the potential ethological methodologies pose when looking into proximate and ultimate roots to complex human and animal behaviour. Discussion An ethological approach to animal behaviour derived from early behavioural sciences. Today, modern ethnology places emphasis on different biological aspects to account for the contexts in which animal behaviour occurs using physiological and evolutionary perspectives. Most behavioural phenomena are not satisfactorily explained at the proximate or ultimate levels. Therefore, to understand the behavioural process fully, ethology appropriately focuses on answering Tinbergens four questions to correctly identify the reciprocal relationship between causal and evolutionary explanations of behaviour.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Essay --

import java.util.ArrayList; import java.util.Arrays; /** * */ /** * @author sharonim * */ public class CarRadio { private StationData data; private boolean power; private int frequency; private String bandAMFM; private int volume; private boolean mute; private boolean set; private int[] AMpreset; private int[] FMpreset; public static final int Vol_min = 0; public static final int Vol_max = 20; public CarRadio(StationData d){ = d; this.power = false; this.frequency = FreqBand.AM.minFreq(); this.bandAMFM = "AM"; this.volume = 0; this.mute = false; this.set = false; this.AMpreset = new int[5]; this.FMpreset = new int[5]; Arrays.fill(FMpreset, FreqBand.FM.minFreq()); Arrays.fill(AMpreset, FreqBand.AM.minFreq()); } public void powerBtn(){ if(this.power == false){ this.power = true; } else{ this.power = false; } clear(); } public void volumeUpBtn(){ if(this.power == true){ if(this.volume == Vol_max){ return; } else{ this.volume++; } } else{ return; } } public void volumeDownBtn(){ if(this.power == true){ if(this.volume == Vol_min){ return; } else{ this.volume--; } } else{ return; } } public void muteBtn(){ if(this.power == true){ if(this.mute == false){ this.mute = true; } else{ this.mute = false; } } else{ return; } } public void amfmBtn(){ if(this.power == true){ clear(); if(this.bandAMFM == "AM"){ this.bandAMFM = "FM"; this.frequency = FreqBand.FM.minFreq(); } else{ this.bandAMFM = "AM"; this.frequency = FreqBand.AM.minFreq(); } } } public void tuneUpBtn(){ if(this.power == true){ clea... ... == true){ if(this.set == true){ setPreset(3); clear(); } else{ usePreset(3); clear(); } } else{ return; } } public void preset5Btn(){ if(this.power == true){ if(this.set == true){ setPreset(4); clear(); } else{ usePreset(4); clear(); } } else{ return; } } public ArrayList display(){ ArrayList output = new ArrayList(); output.add("Power: " + power); output.add("Band: "+ bandAMFM); output.add("Frequency: " + frequency); output.add("Volume: " + volume); output.add("Mute: " + mute); output.add("FM Preset: " + FMpreset[0] + " " + FMpreset[1] + " " + FMpreset[2] + " " + FMpreset[3] + " " + FMpreset[4]); output.add("AM Preset: " + AMpreset[0] + " " + AMpreset[1] + " " + AMpreset[2] + " " + AMpreset[3] + " " + AMpreset[4]); return output; } }

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Victims of Domestic Abuse :: Legal Issues, Politics, Social Issues

Currently, protective orders are only provided during regular court hours to victims of domestic abuse. However, the occurrence of violence has no time frame – it does not only take place or transpire on a nine to five time clock. Therefore, I propose that legislation should be pushed forward which allows District commissioners the authority to put temporary restraining orders on people accused of domestic violence. It is important to note that victims may not receive full protection until the existing false impressions, held by some judicial and public safety officials, about the proper issuance and enforcement of protective orders are rejected. It is often considered that a protective order, being a civil order, should not be handled or enforced by police. This type of power should not be distributed, uncontrollably, to police officers. Since a court issues a protective order, some mistakenly believe that the police should not be able to arrest a person who violates the protective order because the person is in contempt of court – not disobeying the law. The proposed legislation would destroy these misconceptions by changing the state constitution to allow District commissioners to not only grant protective orders but also at night and on the weekends to safeguard â€Å"victims† of domestic abuse. Domestic violence is defined as threatened or actual abuse from someone in the victim’s immediate family or in his/her home or with whom she/he has a close relationship. Temporary restraining orders are issued by a court to restrict the conduct of a person while providing a victim with protection from the activities of an abusive person.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Analysis of Myth of Total Cinema: Bazin

The Myth of Total Cinema Andre Bazin in his article, The Myth of Total Cinema, asserts that motivation behind cinema is realism. He explains his theory by examining the technology of cinema. He argues that cinema was not born from the technology advancement but rather from innate desire to reproduce the realism of our world. â€Å"The basic technical discoveries [are] fortunate accidents†¦ essentially second in importance to the preconceived ideas of the inventors† (Bazin, 200). What Bazin means is that the invention of technology was not to gain profit rather to replicate and reproduce our real world on screen.Though he does argue that some were in it for the profit of the technology. Inventors of photography and cinema thought about what they will show and reproduce primarily to how they will achieve the reality of the world. In another words, the essential drive to reproduce the real led to the production of technology. The desire for realism did not come from the prod uction of technology. Bazin goes on to explain that our understanding of cinema should not derive from the technology but from the reality that is perceived through the reproduction. Related article: Odeon Cinema PestleBazin goes on to state that: â€Å"The guiding myth, then, inspiring the invention of cinema, is the accomplishment of that which dominated in a more or less vague fashion all the techniques of the mechanical reproduction of reality in the nineteenth century, from photography to phonograph, namely an integral realism, a recreation of the world in its own image, an image unburdened by the freedom of interpretation of the artist or the irreversibility of time† (Bazin, 202). What he is trying to elucidate is that the guiding myth of realism and cinema should be the production of cinema unburdened by an artist’s interpretation or subjectivity.It also means that the time is not restricted. In addition Bazin continues, â€Å"The real primitives of the cinema, existing only in the imaginations of a few men of the nineteenth century, are in complete imitation of nature† (Bazin, 202). He is stating that a real cinema is established by t hose who dream of cinema as a replicate of nature. Bazin concludes that the myth of total cinema is ‘realism’, and that it has been a part of every man before invention of technology. Bazin’s article is very interesting and reasonable but his arguments only justify one side of the story.Cinema is not only a tool for reproduction of nature but also an apparatus for fantasy and dreams. It can be argued, I too agree, that the development of technology was created for the purpose of recreating nature, but the development of technology has advanced artistically. This artistic development of technology has aided many in creating their imagination that are beyond reality. For example, the film, Inception, contains scenes that are impossible to film in reality. Scenes containing upside buildings, never ending stairs, buildings crumbling and etc. are very difficult to accomplish without the help of the advancing technology. Yet the advancing technology has made it possibl e to create the impossible. What I am trying to say is that the story of Inception was not created prior to the advancement of technology but after. The story of the film was thought out with the possibilities of the technology in mind. Bazin maybe correct in stating that cinema was essentially the instinctive drive of human desire to reconstruct and imitate reality though we can argue that it is not the ‘only’ drive of cinema.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Confidentiality and Minors

Confidentiality is an essential component to the counseling process. It allows for the client to build a trustful relationship with the counselor. â€Å" Counselors regard the promise of confidentiality to be essential for the development of client trust† (Glosoff & Pate, 2002). Most individuals that seek counseling services assume that what is discussed in the counseling sessions with the counselor will be kept in confidence with limited exceptions. These exceptions become a complex balancing act for the counselor especially when their clients are minors. Confidentiality is a widely held ethical standard a variously accorded legal right of clients and responsibility of counselors (American Counseling Association, 2005: American School Counseling Association, 2010). According to the Ethical Standards for School Counselors and the Code of Ethics and Standards for Counseling (2010), both specify that counselors are ethically required to take appropriate action and breach confide ntiality in certain circumstances involving minors.Counselors are required to breach confidentiality if there is imminent danger to self and others, if there is suspected child abuse or neglect or to protect a vulnerable client from danger. There are other limitations to confidentiality and minors as well. Some of these limitations involve parents and their right to know what is happening in counseling sessions between the therapist and their child.This problem is one that schools counselors and clinical therapists must face when counseling minors. Counselors in both clinical and school settings are faced with ethical issues with regards to confidentiality each time they encounter a client that is a minor. School Counselors have a variety of roles and responsibilities to students, teachers, parents and administrators (Iyer, McGregor & Connor, 2010).According to the American School Counseling Association (2004), it is the responsibility of the school counselor to help a child develop effective coping skills, identify personal strengths and assets, recognize and express feelings and provide a foundation for the child’s personal and social growth as he or she progresses from school to adulthood as apart of the process. School Counselors must collaborate with all persons involved with the minor in this process, which usually includes the parents and teachers. SchoolCounselors are also sometimes asked to be apart of child study teams within the school, which can be very beneficial to the students and those involved in their lives. School Counselors must follow the American School Counseling Association’s ethical standards for School Counselors regarding confidentiality. In beginning sessions between the client and the school counselor confidentiality should be discussed and the conditions in which it may have to be breached. According to Lazovsky (2010), The management of student confidentiality has been described as the primary ethical dilemma of sch ool counselors.There are various ethical and legal issues that arise for School Counselors when dealing with confidentiality. School Counselors are required ethically to report when a student engages in clear and imminent danger to themselves or others. Some school counselors base their decision to breach confidentiality on how imminent the danger is that is being presented by the situation. â€Å"Most counselors would agree parents should be informed of drug experimentation by an 8 year old. Many however, would disagree to tell parents that a 16 year old client reported occasional experimentation with marijuana† (Glosoff & Pate, 2002).This example shows that school counselors should use discretion when deciding to breach confidentiality. These two minor clients are different but each situation has a variety of ways that it could be handled. According to Lazovky (2008), school counselors are advised to consult with supervisors and colleagues before making decisions based on b reaching confidentiality. They should also know their state policies and laws in the school jurisdiction. Another ethical and legal issue that can arise for school counselors counseling minors in relation to confidentiality is the disclosure of student provided information to parents.Privileged communication is apart of confidentiality. Privileged communication allows for clients to ask counselors to keep their communications and records of their counseling sessions confidential. Privilege belongs to the client and the counselor asserts privilege for the client. According to Glosoff (2002), the already complex issue of privileges communication for school counselors is made even more complex by who has the privilege when counseling a minor. Parents of minors rather than minor clients are assumed to control privilege. School Counselors are sometimes subpoenaed for court appearances when the parent’s do not agree on whether the counselors presence is necessary in the testimony o r a parental custody dispute may be the heart of the legal proceeding. The ACA and ASCA recognize that school counselors have limits to their ability to protect client confidences. School Counselors must not only be mindful of their ethical duties but cooperate with any laws that that apply to them as well. The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) establishes that parents control the rights of students under the age of 18 (Iyer, McGregor & Connor, 2010).This includes any of the student’s records such as grades, awards and date of birth. Decisions about the release of these records are based under exceptions under FERPA and also the parent’s consent. However, most records regarding the student are held in safe places where other school officials do not have or need access. Another law that school counselors must keep in mind is HIPAA. This law was enacted to protect patient’s health information. In relation to school counselors, the student’s me dical records are being protected. The issue of confidentiality in Child Study Teams has become an ethical dilemma for many school counselors.The school counselor must decide on what to disclose and what information to inquire about based on each member’s rights and responsibilities. Deciding what to reveal and what to keep confidential can be a hard and difficult task for school counselors. Clinical Therapists face many ethical and legal issues with regards to confidentiality as well. Clinical Therapists are different from School Counselors in their role with minors because the only stakeholder involved with the therapist in most cases is the parent. According to Ellis (2009), minor’s right to confidentiality is an area at times, which ethics and the law are in conflict.One of these ethical dilemmas arises in the area client privilege. In the case of minors, this privilege extends to the parents who act as representatives to their dependent children. Clinical Therapis t struggle with maintaining confidentiality for their minor clients especially when the law is on the side of the parents because they have the right to know. Stone & Issacs (2003) suggest that in order to deal with ethical issues regarding confidentiality and minors therapists should prepare a written professional services agreement which provides details on the limits and conditions of confidentiality.At this point the parent can be involved in their child’s treatment in various ways. One of the ways that parents can be involved is through periodical family sessions. In the clinical counseling setting, there are often conflicts between duties of confidentiality and the need to share information with parents or other agencies that provide care for a child or adolescent. There can also be ethical conflicts between duties of confidentiality, grounded in respect for patient autonomy, and both statutory and moral obligations to report child abuse, which are grounded in duties of care and protection (Kaplan, 2005).One issue which troubles some clinical therapists is a statutory obligation to report consensual sexual relationships that adolescents are engaged in with adults irrespective of whether they are clinically judged to be abusive, because they can be framed in many child protection statutes or guidance as constituting abuse. (Ellis, 2009). There are some similarities between confidentiality and counseling minors in both school and clinical settings. One similarity is that in both settings counselors must follow the same ethical guidelines for breaching confidentiality.Breaching confidentiality is allowed by ethical codes in special or extreme circumstances (Lazovsky, 2008). In both settings counselors must carefully deliberate over the circumstances that are presented to them by the minor client in the counseling sessions. The counselor should then decide whether or not to breach confidentiality. This ethical dilemma is a difficult issue that many co unselors are faced with in both clinical and school settings.Another similarity between counseling minors in both school and clinical settings is that counselors must often consult with other staff members in both settings for the benefit of the children that they serve. It is important for counselors to educate other non-mental health staff members that they must keep confidential any personal information they learn about children as a result of their professional positions (Rehmley & Herley, 2010). If any information were to be disclosed outside of the school or clinical settings, it could be lead to grounds for a lawsuit.There are some differences between confidentiality and counseling minors in both school and clinical settings as well. One difference is that counselors in clinical settings encounter fewer ethical issues around confidentiality and minors because parents usually have given legal consent for the counselor to work with the client. However in the school setting, Reh mley & Herley (2010) state that the counselor often does not have a legal obligation to obtain parental permission before counseling students unless there is a federal or state statute to the contrary.Another difference between confidentiality and minors in the school and clinical setting is in the clinical setting the counseling process may be limited to the counselor, the minor client and the parents. Most minor clients who are placed in clinical treatment facilities will be unable to make crucial decisions for themselves. The privilege of informed consent will be given to the parent and the parent will operate in the child’s best interests (Glosoff & Pate, 2002). Counselors in both clinical and school settings find the ethical and legal issues of confidentiality difficult because there are constant conflicts between the law and ethics.One issue that counselors find causes tension between law and ethics is whether children have the right to enter into a counseling relations hip without parental consent. According to Rehmley & Herley (2010), every child has a moral right to privacy in the counseling relationship. Kaplan (2005) believes that children should have the same rights to confidentiality as adult clients. However, counselors constantly struggle between the ethical obligation of privacy to their minor clients and their legal obligation to the parents of the same minor clients to keep their child protected and safe.There are some ways that counselors are able to deal with these ethical and legal dilemmas regarding confidentiality and minors. One recommendation that was made by Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor (2010) is to develop and maintain a strong informed consent policy. Informed consent is a process that is an ongoing process and should begin before the counseling process begins. According to Glosoff & Pate (2002), it is beneficial in both settings to develop a written informed consent policy so that it can be given to parents and anyone else who is involved in the clients counseling process.This is beneficial because all parties involved in the process will know about confidentiality and also what to expect. Another recommendation that was suggested by Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor (2010) is to educate all members that are involved in the minor client’s counseling process about the importance of confidentiality. In this way there will be a reduction in the likelihood of difficult situations posed by ethical dilemmas developing in the first place. An explanation of confidentiality would be a great addition to an orientation to parents, teachers or other non-mental health professionals.They would know what to expect with regards to confidentiality in counseling sessions with minors. Another suggestion that was discussed in the literature in relation to ethical and legal dilemmas regarding confidentiality and minors is to send out educational newsletters and emails. This suggestion takes a proactive stance towards the ethical and legal issue of confidentiality and minors and it helps to avoid the possible ethical dilemma before it occurs (Glosoff &Pate, 2002).Some possible items that could be included in these newsletters or emails may be a definition of confidentiality, one’s informed consent policy, state regulations or law’s regarding confidentiality and a summary of ASCA’s and ACA’s ethics statements for counselors. Lastly, another suggestion that was discussed in the literature in relation to ethical and legal dilemmas regarding confidentiality and minors is for counselors to develop a strong network of professionals that counselors can confide in and ask advice when they encounter an ethical dilemma (Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor 2010; Glosoff & Pate, 2002).This network may include school psychologists, local psychologists, counseling professionals and any who works within a similar field. According to Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor (2010), a counselor may u se a common framework such Kitchener’s five moral principles regarding ethical decision making. The five moral principal’s are autonomy, justice (fairness), beneficence (doing good), non-maleficence (doing no harm) and fidelity (keeping promises).Another ethical decision making model that can be followed is by Forester-Miller and Davis which is to 1) Identify the problem, 2) Apply one’s professional code of ethics, 3) Determine the nature and decisions of the dilemma, 4) Generate potential courses of action, 5) Consider the potential consequences of all options and choose a course of action 6) Evaluate the selected course of action and 7) Implement the course of action. Counselors in both clinical and school setting have a tremendous amount of responsibility to uphold when they are counseling minors.The ethical and legal issues that arise for this group can sometimes differ and also be contradictory to each other. It is the responsibility of the counselors to pr epare themselves and all parties involved in the counseling process with the knowledge that is necessary in regards to confidentiality and minors. In many cases when the counselor is left to choose the right course of action in regards to confidentiality, the outcome will inevitable benefit the client. References American Counseling Association. (2005). Code of ethics and standards of practice (Rev. ed. ) Alexandria, VA: Author.American School Counselor Association. (2010). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved from http://www. schoolcounselor. org/content. asp? contentid=17 Barnett, J. E. (2008). The ethical practice of psychotherapy: Easily within our reach. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 569-575. doi:10. 1002/jclp. 20473 Ellis, E. M. (2009). Should a psychotherapist be compelled to release an adolescent’s treatment records to a parent in a contested custody case?. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice, 40(6), 557-563. doi:10. 1037/a0017419 Glo soff, H. L. , & Pate, R. r. (2002).Privacy and confidentiality in school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 6(1), 20-27. Iyer, N. N. , Baxter-McGregor, J. & Connor, A. R. (2010). Ethical dilemmas for the school counselor: balancing student confidentiality and parents’ right to know. New York State School Counselor Association, 7(2), 17-22. Kaplan, A. I. (2005). Therapist-Patient Privilege: Who Owns the Privilege?. Journal Of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 11(1/2), 135-143. doi:10. 1300/J146v11n0111 Lazovsky, R. (2008). Maintaining confidentiality with minors: Dilemmas of school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11(5), 335-346. oi:10. 5330/PSC. n. 2010-11. 335 Mitchell, C. W. , Disque, J. , & Robertson, P. (2002). When parents want to know: Responding to parental demands for confidential information. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 156-161. Rehmley, T. P. , & Herlihy, B. (2010). Ethical, Legal and Professional Issues in Counseling. Merrill; New Yor k. Stone, C. , & Isaacs, M. L. (2003). Confidentiality with minors: The need for policy to promote and protect. The Journal Of Educational Research, 96(3), 140-150. doi:10. 1080/00220670309598802 Confidentiality and Minors By Neferteria Thomas

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

When should we trust our senses to give us truth?

In order to answer the question about when we should trust our senses to deliver us the truth, it is important to first understand our senses. Primarily, our senses serves as a jump point of our awareness or our consciousness, as it takes the form of an inner entity within us, somehow becoming a guide for our actions. We perceive our senses as a truth detector, which again goes back to how it guides our actions. For most of us, we consider our senses as a much more reliable truth detector compared to our emotions, as it can often deceive us and possibly lead us to our demise. These senses are able to relay to us whether something is right or wrong, or may be unfit for a situation. Further defining it, I could personally say that it is an instinct, an innate ability, which helps or leads us to perceive the world we live in, including the existence of things and the occurrences of events that may or may not matter to us. We have these five human senses, which include sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. All or some of these senses are present in human beings, and these are very useful in their day to day activities. Our senses enable us to act normally, or even to respond accordingly to whatever predicament we are facing. Our senses are essential in decision making in all of the situations that we may encounter. We synthesize the inputs of our sensory organs and use it to determine what course of action we should take. But still, there are some uncertainties regarding our senses. In a situation where a person sees a car coming when he decides to cross the road at a certain time, how will he be able to tell if what he is seeing with his eyes, what he is hearing with his ears, or how the wind feels in his skin, is really the truth? How can he be so sure that the image or idea that is formed in his head is the reality, and that his senses are not lying to him? In this split second, how will he decide? Should he trust his senses or just ignore them? In the end, it is still up to the person to decide on what course of action he will take, as it is essential to trust ones senses on delivering the truth about a certain event or entity. In order to gauge if we can really trust our senses, we need to lay down certain considerations that we have to follow. One way is to understand the effect of one’s previous knowledge, understanding, and experience, the completeness of one’s senses (whether or not you have all five senses), the presence and the effect of mental illness to one’s judgment and decision making, the usual interpretations of one’s senses, and finally, the accepted norms of the society that one person belongs to. All these considerations have to be understood, as it is essential in understanding whether or not our senses can be trusted to deliver us the truth. Initially, we have to gauge our previous knowledge, understanding, and experience, in relation to using our senses. We could ask ourselves if there are any situations or occurrences that our senses have failed us. We should determine how it has failed us, and what its effect to us is. We should also determine the situation wherein our senses accurately perceived events or objects, and use this to compare on the instances it has failed us. By basing on this previous knowledge, we can see the importance of the stored information that we have generated from the past. This old information will be used to create a new one, and that would be our understanding of our senses, whether they are unreliable or not. If we are able to tell several instances which the senses have failed us, then we start to construct an understanding that at these situations, our senses may not be enough in order to determine the truth. At this point, we start to create a knowledge that tells us how hard it is to perceive an event or an entity with our senses that we possess. One practical example of this is when we need to use the microscope. Before we know about the existence of microorganism unseen to the naked eye, we have a mindset that the world is what is there to see. Our previous knowledge tells us of how surfaces of rocks, soil and other places look like, but with the use of the microscope, we are able to establish a new knowledge about microorganisms that we cannot see with our eyes alone. Our ears are also unable to detect sounds outside the range of our perceivable or tolerable wavelengths. However, we are able to do so with certain devices, and we are even able to put this into practical use, and one example is our use of SONAR. In relation to this information, we would go back to another criterion in gauging the truthfulness of what our senses perceive. This is whether or not one person has complete or incomplete senses. If we look closely at this idea, we become clear to the fact that there are a lot of people living in this world without complete senses, but despite their incompleteness, they are still able to function normally, and that predicament tend to work for them. This is not only a case of faulty functioning sense, but the absence of a sense (or senses). Despite this, they are able to live their lives like people with complete senses do, and this is made possible by their remaining senses. Looking at this in a knowledge standpoint, we may say that they were able to learn how to live even when they lack a certain sense. For a blind man, perception is not limited to the eyes alone, and he is able to navigate his way in the world with the use of his hearing or smelling. They learn to use their remaining senses in different ways, and that enables them to live normal lives. The knowledge that they gain from using their remaining senses becomes different from the knowledge that they gain when they have complete senses. In a way, they are able to fully trust their remaining senses because it’s what they have. Somehow, they were able to hone those senses in a manner that they perceive things accurately, and without failure. Let’s compare a normal person and a blind person when they wait for a train. A normal person relies on a combination of his senses, sight and hearing, in order to determine if the train is already near. He can look far back into the rail and see any hint of the train coming, couple with hearing of the increasing train sound. On the other hand, a blind man would solely rely on his sense of hearing to determine if the train is coming. He could concentrate on the distinct sound that a train makes upon its arrival. The blind man may only rely on hearing in order to determine the train’s arrival, but this doesn’t mean that it is a disadvantage. Even with his sole sense, he can concentrate on the distinct sound made by the train, and it hones his sense of hearing, so that he can accurately perceive the train’s arrival. On the other hand, a man with both sight and hearing could hear and see the train when it arrives, but he may be distracted by one sense and lose concentration of accurately determining its presence. Suffice to say, the presence or absence of any sense does not necessarily mean a diminished understanding of the world a person lives in. The knowledge that he gains with the presence of absence of a sense may vary, but still, he is able to fully understand it, and be able to form his own construct of what is the truth. Another criterion would be the presence and the effects of mental illness to a person’s judgment and decision making. With this criterion, we determine if a person is affected by other things other than his senses in the things that they perceive. Certain cases of mental illness may result to perceiving events or entities which are not real, and are only created by one person’s mind, as a result of his mental illness. If this is the case, then the integrity of what he perceives through his senses is jeopardized. Something that may be non-existent in real life may exist in one’s own perception. This doesn’t mean that he has heightened senses, instead it means that he has a problem, which needs to address in a different manner. This case is also similar to when a person consumes substances that may alter his perception of things. Illicit drugs can often result to hallucinations, but this doesn’t mean that what they may see or experience is real. There is actually no knowledge created in this case, as it invokes the mind to have false perceptions, instead of actually seeing the reality. There is no truth in what the senses may perceive, since it is the person’s mind that creates these images or occurrences that he is having. Our senses are really important in order for us to function fully in our lives. However, there are certain instances that may affect what we perceive with these senses, thus jeopardizing the integrity of what we perceive. Because of this, the knowledge that we create in relation to these senses (their presence or absence) may vary, depending on the situation. Trusting theses senses and understanding their faults are equally important in knowing whether or not they give us the truth. When Should We Trust Our Senses to Give Us Truth Our senses help us interact with the world. Smell, hearing, sight, taste, touch, and external stimulus play a major role in shaping our perceptions of the surroundings and the world. To trust our senses means that we have justified belief of what we perceive is â€Å"true†. To what extent can our senses give us truth? In order to obtain a better understanding of under what conditions we can rely on our senses, we need to compare circumstances where they have most been true with circumstances where they most have not. We appear to rely on our senses in order to perceive the truth in terms of the world and the surroundings. Senses are the representation of reality, we can perceive that there is an apple on the table by touching or seeing it through motor and sensory neurons and electromagnetic rays. Also, senses play a significant role in surviving. A keen sense of smell allows animals to run away from predators and allocate food, similarly, a good eye-sight allows us to see what is going on around us and helps us get familiar with the surroundings in order to adapt. In 2004, many animals such as elephants and flamingos escaped the tsunami in Sri Lanka and India, the animals â€Å"predicted† the coming disaster as they may have more acute sense of hearing or touch which allows them to feel the strong vibration of the Earth. On the other hand, our senses can easily be deceived. Advertisements on TV and internet tell us how great a product is and encourage us to buy it, however, the truth may be that the actual product is not as effective as it seems to be. I bought a shampoo because on the advertisement it said that it can moisturize my hair and make my hair look shiny, and the hair of the model in the advertisement looked pretty which made me want to look like her. However, when I actually used it, it did not have all the effects that were described and my hair still looked the same. Magic performance is successful because of its deception of our senses. Once during a magic show, I saw the performer cut a lady in half but the lady was still alive. The truth is that the performer did not cut the lady, the lady appeared to be in half because of the information that my sense of sight sent. Senses can be misleading because they may only show one side of the situation, unless more senses work togerther and we reasoning the information we get from our senses, we cannot reach the truth. However, we still may not get the truth even if we reason or our senses work together. Different people perceive differently. Blind people do not have their sense of sight so they cannot know that an apple is red but they may have stronger senses of hearing and touch than normal people. It is also understood that emotion affects our perception of truth. I like fast food and therefore I perceive fast food as delicious food and have affection for it, but my mom hates fast food and therefore she sees it disgusting. Despite the problems our senses may cause, they still play a significant role in our areas of knowledge. Evolutionarily, we trusted our sense. According to Charles Darwin’s natural selection theory, the strongest will survive and the weakest will die. Men select the best looking women and women select the strongest looking man. Although the this pattern has now changed, men are still generally attracted to good looking women and women choose men that they feel being safe with. Scientifically, scientists need to observe the phenomenon and conduct experiments through their senses first and then make theories by reasoning. Our senses are limited. We see only a tiny part of reality as we can only see the visible spectrum of the whole electromagnetic spectrum and the things we see are our representation of them. As Hermann von Helmholtz argues, we convert the image we see through our eyes into something that makes sense base on our prior knowledge and experience. The optical illusions created by Hermann and Lingelbach supported Helmholtz’s idea because we have difficulty to see images composed of lines due to limitation in our optical sense. As philosopher Rene Descarte says that â€Å"the senses deceive from time to time, and it is prudent never to trust wholly those who have deceived us even once†, our senses indeed can be fallible and limited, but we need them to interact with the world. So let us just follow our senses and live in the world our senses provide us.

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

International Relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 11

International Relations - Essay Example The French economy, however, is among the strongest in the world and Europe. France, in coordination with the World Bank, has a commitment to device development policies aimed at enhancing food security in the country, combating climate change, enhancing infrastructure development, improving the health sector and education sector. According to the IMF, unemployment rate, consumer prices, and Gross Domestic Products are among the greatest key indicators of growth in France (Fig. 3). All the key indicators affect the progress of French economy since the 2008 crisis. The number of new businesses registered in 2008, in France, was 147, 049. The number reduced to 128, 906 in 2009, while in 2010 there were 132, 696 new businesses registered against 132, 293 in 2011. The most recent number of new businesses registered is 132, 293. New businesses density is reducing in the country with the highest density per 1,000 people ages 15-64 being 3.5 in 2008 compared against the latest value of 3.1. The implication of few new businesses registrations is slow creation of jobs in the informal sector from entrepreneurial avenues (fig. 4). Primary total is the enrolment is an age-specific enrolment rate of the of the official primary entrance age. An analysis of data indicates an average of 98.9 % over a period of the last 5 years. It is an indicator that France is only a step away at attaining a maximum adjusted net intake to primary schools. A succinct analysis of the gender distribution statistics indicates a balanced intake between male and female. The country is not gender biased as it relates primary education. On an average, both genders have risen over time, from 2008 to 2013. The female gender hits at an average of 98.7 while the male have 99.1. There is however, a need for the country to engage in more sensitization programs to balance the figures. The current dependency